Joint Declaration issued at the British-French Summit in Saint Malo ( BLAIR, Tony: New Britain in the Modern World (Rede von Premierminister Tony Blair. Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson, genannt Boris, ist ein britischer Publizist, Politiker der Conservative Party und seit dem Juli Premierminister des Vereinigten Königreichs. Von bis Dezember war Johnson Herausgeber des. Duell um die Downing Street - Boris Johnson. Vor allem außenpolitisch steht Johnson mit dem Brexit und den Spannungen in der Golfregion.
Premierminister des Vereinigten KönigreichsDer volle Titel lautet Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland . Der Premierminister ist der Chef der Regierung. Er ist im Allgemeinen der mit der Regierungsbildung Beauftragte und leitet und koordiniert die Aktivitäten der. Duell um die Downing Street - Boris Johnson. Vor allem außenpolitisch steht Johnson mit dem Brexit und den Spannungen in der Golfregion.
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Kabinett Salisbury III. Arthur Balfour später 1. Earl of Balfour. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. Herbert Henry Asquith später 1.
Earl of Oxford and Asquith. Liberal Koalitionsregierung ab Mai David Lloyd George später 1. Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor. Regierung Lloyd George.
Stanley Baldwin später 1. Earl Baldwin of Bewdley. Erste Regierung Baldwin. Erste Regierung MacDonald.
Zweite Regierung Baldwin. August National Government ; PM: Konservativ. Nationale Regierung III. September Winston Churchill später Sir Winston Churchill.
Kriegsregierung Churchill Übergangsregierung Churchill ab Clement Attlee später 1. Earl Attlee. Kabinett Churchill III. Anthony Eden später 1.
Earl of Avon. Harold Macmillan später 1. Earl of Stockton. Sir Alec Douglas-Home bis Many of the prime minister's executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the sovereign , who remains the head of state.
The position was first mentioned in statute only in , in the schedule of the Chequers Estate Act. Increasingly during the 20th century, the office and role of Prime Minister featured in statute law and official documents; however, the prime minister's powers and relationships with other institutions still largely continue to derive from ancient royal prerogatives and historic and modern constitutional conventions.
Prime ministers continue to hold the position of First Lord of the Treasury and, since November , that of Minister for the Civil Service , the latter giving them authority over the civil service.
Under this arrangement, Britain might appear to have two executives: the prime minister and the sovereign. The concept of " the Crown " resolves this paradox.
Before the " Glorious Revolution " of , the sovereign exclusively wielded the powers of the Crown; afterwards, Parliament gradually forced monarchs to assume a neutral political position.
Parliament has effectively dispersed the powers of the Crown, entrusting its authority to responsible ministers the prime minister and Cabinet , accountable for their policies and actions to Parliament, in particular the elected House of Commons.
Although many of the sovereign's prerogative powers are still legally intact, [note 1] constitutional conventions have removed the monarch from day-to-day governance, with ministers exercising the royal prerogatives, leaving the monarch in practice with three constitutional rights: to be kept informed, to advise and to warn.
For the various personages who presided over the government of England and subsequently Great Britain at the pleasure of the monarch , usually with said monarch's permission, prior to the government under Robert Walpole as Prime Minister in , see List of English chief ministers.
Because the premiership was not intentionally created, there is no exact date when its evolution began. Once the office of Prime Minister was created, they also provided the basis for its evolution.
The Revolutionary Settlement gave the Commons control over finances and legislation and changed the relationship between the Executive and the Legislature.
For want of money, sovereigns had to summon Parliament annually and could no longer dissolve or prorogue it without its advice and consent.
Parliament became a permanent feature of political life. Treasury officials and other department heads were drawn into Parliament serving as liaisons between it and the sovereign.
Ministers had to present the government's policies, and negotiate with Members to gain the support of the majority; they had to explain the government's financial needs, suggest ways of meeting them and give an account of how money had been spent.
The Sovereign's representatives attended Commons sessions so regularly that they were given reserved seats at the front, known as the Treasury Bench.
This is the beginning of "unity of powers": the sovereign's ministers the Executive became leading members of Parliament the Legislature.
Today, the prime minister First Lord of the Treasury , the Chancellor of the Exchequer responsible for The Budget and other senior members of the Cabinet sit on the Treasury bench and present policies in much the same way Ministers did late in the 17th century.
After the Revolution, there was a constant threat that non-government members of Parliament would ruin the country's finances by proposing ill-considered money bills.
Vying for control to avoid chaos, the Crown's Ministers gained an advantage in , when the Commons informally declared, "That this House will receive no petition for any sum of money relating to public Service, but what is recommended from the Crown.
Empowering ministers with sole financial initiative had an immediate and lasting impact. Apart from achieving its intended purpose — to stabilise the budgetary process — it gave the Crown a leadership role in the Commons; and, the Lord Treasurer assumed a leading position among ministers.
The power of financial initiative was not, however, absolute. Only Ministers might initiate money bills, but Parliament now reviewed and consented to them.
Standing Order 66 therefore represents the beginnings of Ministerial responsibility and accountability.
The term "Prime Minister" appears at this time as an unofficial title for the leader of the government, usually the Head of the Treasury.
Political parties first appeared during the Exclusion Crisis of — The Whigs , who believed in limited monarchy , wanted to exclude James, Duke of York , from succeeding to the throne because he was a Roman Catholic.
Political parties were not well organised or disciplined in the 17th century. They were more like factions, with "members" drifting in and out, collaborating temporarily on issues when it was to their advantage, then disbanding when it was not.
A major deterrent to the development of opposing parties was the idea that there could only be one "King's Party" and to oppose it would be disloyal or even treasonous.
This idea lingered throughout the 18th century. Nevertheless it became possible at the end of the 17th century to identify Parliaments and Ministries as being either "Whig" or "Tory" in composition.
The modern prime minister is also the leader of the Cabinet. A convention of the constitution, the modern Cabinet is a group of ministers who formulate policies.
Although the modern prime minister selects ministers, appointment still rests with the sovereign. The term "Cabinet" first appears after the Revolutionary Settlement to describe those ministers who conferred privately with the sovereign.
The growth of the Cabinet met with widespread complaint and opposition because its meetings were often held in secret and it excluded the ancient Privy Council of which the Cabinet is formally a committee from the sovereign's circle of advisers, reducing it to an honorary body.
However, it might also include individuals who were not members of Parliament such as household officers e. The exclusion of non-members of Parliament from the Cabinet was essential to the development of ministerial accountability and responsibility.
Both William and Anne appointed and dismissed Cabinet members, attended meetings, made decisions, and followed up on actions. Relieving the Sovereign of these responsibilities and gaining control over the Cabinet's composition was an essential part of evolution of the Premiership.
This process began after the Hanoverian Succession. Although George I — attended Cabinet meetings at first, after he withdrew because he did not speak fluent English and was bored with the discussions.
George II — occasionally presided at Cabinet meetings but his successor, George III — , is known to have attended only two during his year reign.
Thus, the convention that sovereigns do not attend Cabinet meetings was established primarily through royal indifference to the everyday tasks of governance.
The prime minister became responsible for calling meetings, presiding, taking notes, and reporting to the Sovereign. These simple executive tasks naturally gave the prime minister ascendancy over his Cabinet colleagues.
Although the first three Hanoverians rarely attended Cabinet meetings they insisted on their prerogatives to appoint and dismiss ministers and to direct policy even if from outside the Cabinet.
It was not until late in the 18th century that prime ministers gained control over Cabinet composition see section Emergence of Cabinet Government below.
British governments or ministries are generally formed by one party. The prime minister and Cabinet are usually all members of the same political party, almost always the one that has a majority of seats in the House of Commons.
Coalition governments a ministry that consists of representatives from two or more parties and minority governments a one-party ministry formed by a party that does not command a majority in the Commons were relatively rare before the election, since there has been both a coalition and minority government.
Early in his reign, William III — preferred "mixed ministries" or coalitions consisting of both Tories and Whigs. William thought this composition would dilute the power of any one party and also give him the benefit of differing points of view.
However, this approach did not work well because the members could not agree on a leader or on policies, and often worked at odds with each other.
In , William formed a homogeneous Whig ministry. Known as the Junto , this government is often cited as the first true Cabinet because its members were all Whigs, reflecting the majority composition of the Commons.
Anne — followed this pattern but preferred Tory Cabinets. This approach worked well as long as Parliament was also predominantly Tory. However, in , when the Whigs obtained a majority, Anne did not call on them to form a government, refusing to accept the idea that politicians could force themselves on her merely because their party had a majority.
Anne preferred to retain a minority government rather than be dictated to by Parliament. Consequently, her chief ministers Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin and Robert Harley , who were called "Prime Minister" by some, had difficulty executing policy in the face of a hostile Parliament.
William's and Anne's experiments with the political composition of the Cabinet illustrated the strengths of one party government and the weaknesses of coalition and minority governments.
Nevertheless, it was not until the s that the constitutional convention was established that the Sovereign must select the prime minister and Cabinet from the party whose views reflect those of the majority in Parliament.
Since then, most ministries have reflected this one party rule. Despite the "one party" convention, prime ministers may still be called upon to lead either minority or coalition governments.
A minority government may be formed as a result of a " hung parliament " in which no single party commands a majority in the House of Commons after a general election or the death, resignation or defection of existing members.
By convention, the serving prime minister is given the first opportunity to reach agreements that will allow them to survive a vote of confidence in the House and continue to govern.
Until , the last minority government was led by Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson for eight months after the February general election produced a hung parliament.
In the October general election , the Labour Party gained 18 seats, giving Wilson a majority of three. A hung parliament may also lead to the formation of a coalition government in which two or more parties negotiate a joint programme to command a majority in the Commons.
Coalitions have also been formed during times of national crisis such as war. Under such circumstances, the parties agree to temporarily set aside their political differences and to unite to face the national crisis.
Coalitions are rare: since , there have been fewer than a dozen. When the general election of produced a hung parliament, the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties agreed to form the Cameron—Clegg coalition , the first coalition in seventy years.
The premiership is still largely a convention of the constitution; its legal authority is derived primarily from the fact that the prime minister is also First Lord of the Treasury.
The connection of these two offices — one a convention, the other a legal office — began with the Hanoverian succession in When George I succeeded to the British throne in , his German ministers advised him to leave the office of Lord High Treasurer vacant because those who had held it in recent years had grown overly powerful, in effect, replacing the sovereign as head of the government.
They also feared that a Lord High Treasurer would undermine their own influence with the new king. They therefore suggested that he place the office in "commission", meaning that a committee of five ministers would perform its functions together.
Theoretically, this dilution of authority would prevent any one of them from presuming to be the head of the government.
No one has been appointed Lord High Treasurer since ; it has remained in commission for three hundred years. The Treasury Commission ceased to meet late in the 18th century but has survived, albeit with very different functions: the First Lord of the Treasury is now the prime minister, the Second Lord is the Chancellor of the Exchequer and actually in charge of the Treasury , and the Junior Lords are government Whips maintaining party discipline in the House of Commons; they no longer have any duties related to the Treasury, though when subordinate legislation requires the consent of the Treasury it is still two of the Junior Lords who sign on its behalf.
Since the office evolved rather than being instantly created, it may not be totally clear-cut who the first prime minister was.
In , the South Sea Company , created to trade in cotton, agricultural goods and slaves, collapsed, causing the financial ruin of thousands of investors and heavy losses for many others, including members of the royal family.
King George I called on Robert Walpole, well known for his political and financial acumen, to handle the emergency.
With considerable skill and some luck, Walpole acted quickly to restore public credit and confidence, and led the country out of the crisis.
A year later, the king appointed him First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Leader of the House of Commons — making him the most powerful minister in the government.
Ruthless, crude, and hard-working, he had a "sagacious business sense" and was a superb manager of men. Walpole demonstrated for the first time how a chief minister — a prime minister — could be the actual head of the government under the new constitutional framework.
First, recognising that the sovereign could no longer govern directly but was still the nominal head of the government, he insisted that he was nothing more than the "King's Servant".
Third, recognising that the Cabinet had become the executive and must be united, he dominated the other members and demanded their complete support for his policies.
Fourth, recognising that political parties were the source of ministerial strength, he led the Whig party and maintained discipline.
In the Commons, he insisted on the support of all Whig members, especially those who held office. Finally, he set an example for future prime ministers by resigning his offices in after a vote of confidence , which he won by just three votes.
The slimness of this majority undermined his power, even though he still retained the confidence of the sovereign.
For all his contributions, Walpole was not a prime minister in the modern sense. The king — not Parliament — chose him; and the king — not Walpole — chose the Cabinet.
Walpole set an example, not a precedent, and few followed his example. For over 40 years after Walpole's fall in , there was widespread ambivalence about the position.
In some cases, the prime minister was a figurehead with power being wielded by other individuals; in others there was a reversion to the "chief minister" model of earlier times in which the sovereign actually governed.
During Great Britain's participation in the Seven Years' War , for example, the powers of government were divided equally between the Duke of Newcastle and William Pitt , leading to them both alternatively being described as Prime Minister.
Furthermore, many thought that the title "Prime Minister" usurped the sovereign's constitutional position as "head of the government" and that it was an affront to other ministers because they were all appointed by and equally responsible to the sovereign.
For these reasons, there was a reluctance to use the title. Although Walpole is now called the "first" prime minister, the title was not commonly used during his tenure.
Walpole himself denied it. In , during the attack that led to Walpole's downfall, Samuel Sandys declared that "According to our Constitution we can have no sole and prime minister".
In his defence, Walpole said "I unequivocally deny that I am sole or Prime Minister and that to my influence and direction all the affairs of government must be attributed".
Denials of the premiership's legal existence continued throughout the 19th century. In , for example, one member of the Commons said, "the Constitution abhors the idea of a prime minister".
In , Lord Lansdowne said, "nothing could be more mischievous or unconstitutional than to recognise by act of parliament the existence of such an office".
By the turn of the 20th century the premiership had become, by convention, the most important position in the constitutional hierarchy.
Yet there were no legal documents describing its powers or acknowledging its existence. The first official recognition given to the office had only been in the Treaty of Berlin in , when Disraeli signed as "First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty".
He has no statutory duties as Prime Minister, his name occurs in no Acts of Parliament, and though holding the most important place in the constitutional hierarchy, he has no place which is recognised by the laws of his country.
This is a strange paradox. In the position was given some official recognition when the "prime minister" was named in the order of precedence , outranked, among non-royals, only by the archbishops of Canterbury and York , the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and the Lord Chancellor.
The first Act of Parliament to mention the premiership — albeit in a schedule — was the Chequers Estate Act on 20 December Unequivocal legal recognition was given in the Ministers of the Crown Act , which made provision for payment of a salary to the person who is both "the First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister".
Explicitly recognising two hundred years' of ambivalence, the Act states that it intended "To give statutory recognition to the existence of the position of Prime Minister, and to the historic link between the premiership and the office of First Lord of the Treasury, by providing in respect to that position and office a salary of Nevertheless, the brass plate on the door of the prime minister's home, 10 Downing Street , still bears the title of "First Lord of the Treasury", as it has since the 18th century as it is officially the home of the First Lord and not the prime minister.
Following the Irish Rebellion of , the British prime minister, William Pitt the Younger , believed the solution to rising Irish nationalism was a union of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland.
Britain then included England and Wales and Scotland , but Ireland had its own parliament and government, which were firmly Anglo-Irish and did not represent the aspirations of most Irishmen.
For this and other reasons, Pitt advanced his policy, and after some difficulty in persuading the Irish political class to surrender its control of Ireland under the Constitution of , the new union was created by the Acts of Union With effect from 1 January , Great Britain and Ireland were united into a single kingdom, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , the Parliament of Ireland came to an end, and until British ministers were responsible for all three kingdoms of the British Isles.
Bonar Law , who had been in office as Prime Minister of Great Britain and Ireland for only six weeks, and who had just won the general election of November , thus became the last prime minister whose responsibilities covered both Britain and the whole of Ireland.
Most of a parliamentary session beginning on 20 November was devoted to the Act, and Bonar Law pushed through the creation of the Free State in the face of opposition from the "die hards".
Despite the reluctance to legally recognise the Premiership, ambivalence toward it waned in the s. During the first 20 years of his reign, George III — tried to be his own "prime minister" by controlling policy from outside the Cabinet, appointing and dismissing ministers, meeting privately with individual ministers, and giving them instructions.
These practices caused confusion and dissension in Cabinet meetings; King George's experiment in personal rule was generally a failure.
After the failure of Lord North 's ministry — in March due to Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War and the ensuing vote of no confidence by Parliament, the Marquess of Rockingham reasserted the prime minister's control over the Cabinet.
Rockingham assumed the Premiership "on the distinct understanding that measures were to be changed as well as men; and that the measures for which the new ministry required the royal consent were the measures which they, while in opposition, had advocated.
From this time, there was a growing acceptance of the position of Prime Minister and the title was more commonly used, if only unofficially.
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